Glossary of Terms

Abdomen: The part of the body that contains the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys and bladder.

Acellular: Without cells. Tissue-derived products that have been formed by cells but have been rendered acellular during processing.

Acetabulum: The cup-shaped cavity at the base of the hipbone into which the ball-shaped head of the femur fits.

ACL: Anterior cruciate ligament - the main stabilising ligament of the knee, connecting the femur to the tibia.

ACL Reconstruction: Surgery to replace torn ACL.

Allograft: Human tissue from a cadaver that is transplanted from one person into another during surgery.

Arthritis: Inflammation of a joint. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, warmth, swelling, redness and pain. There are over 100 types of arthritis.

Arthro: Combined with other words, indicates a relationship to a joint or joints. 

Arthroplasty: Procedure to replace or mobilise a joint, typically performed by removing the arthritic surfaces and replacing them with an implant.

Arthroscopy: A form of minimally invasive surgery in which a fibre optic camera, the arthroscope, is introduced into an area of the body through a small incision.

Articular Cartilage: A smooth, glistening surface that covers the ends of bones that articulate with each other to form a joint.

Articular Surface: The surface of a joint at which the ends of the bones meet.

Articulate: Consisting of segments united by joints.

Aseptically Processed: Process that prevents contamination with microorganisms that could cause infection and the condition of being free from bacteria, fungi and viruses. Aseptic technique refers to efforts to maintain a sterile field during a procedure to prevent infection. 

Autograft: Human tissue transferred from one part of a patient’s body to another.

Bladder: A triangle-shaped organ located in the lower abdomen which holds urine.

Bone: hard, rigid form of connective tissue constituting most of the skeleton of vertebrates, composed chiefly of calcium salts.

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs): Genetically produced proteins that promote the formation of bone and cartilage.

Cadaver: A dead human body (corpse).

Calcium Oxalate: The most common constituent of kidney stones and the type of stone which is most prone to recur.

Calculus: A stone, usually in the kidney or ureter, but may also occur in the prostate or bladder.

Cancellous Bone:  A spongy, porous, interior layer of bone that protects the bone marrow. It structurally resembles honeycomb and accounts for about 20% of bone matter in the human body.

Cancellous Chips and Cubes: Made from the cancellous compartment of bone; they are used to fill bony voids or gaps in a patient's skeletal system as a result of surgery or traumatic injury. Cancellous bone solutions provide a scaffold for bone in-growth and remodel with the patient's bone. 

Cartilage: A type of firm, rubbery connective tissue that cushions bones at the joints. This is a protective, soft tissue found at the end of bones, which absorbs shock and facilitates joint motion.

Chondroblasts: The cells that form cartilage.

Condyle: A rounded prominence at the end of a long bone, most often for articulation with another bone.

Cortical Bone: Smooth, dense and homogenous bone that forms the surface of bone.

Cystoscopy: An examination in which a scope, a flexible tube and viewing device, is inserted through the urethra to examine the bladder and urinary tract.

Demineralised Bone Grafts: Bone that has undergone extraction of minerals (superficially or completely).

Endourology: A generic term for inspection of the internal lining of the organs of the urinary tract using a telescope and an illuminating light source.

Ex-Plant: Popular reference to a hip cup removal system. Our product is the 'Cup-X' by Innomed. The Cup-X Acetabular cup extraction system is available with titanium nitride coated blades.

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL): A medical procedure that uses shock waves to break up stones in the kidney, bladder, or ureter. After the procedure, the tiny pieces of stones pass out of the body in the urine.

Facet Joints: Flat, plate-like surfaces that act as part of a joint; facets are seen in the vertebrae and in the subtalar joint of the ankle.

Femoral Condyles: The surface at the distal end of the femur that articulates with the superior surfaces of the tibia.

Femoral Head: Proximal end of the femur, articulating with the acetabulum.

Freeze-Dried Allograft: Method for human tissue preparation and preservation in which tissue is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. Freeze-dried tissue can then be stored at room temperature. 

Fresh-Frozen Allograft: Tissue that is immediately processed then frozen; and only undergoes one freeze/thaw cycle to better preserve soft tissue. Some common examples of grafts processed in this way are BTB, gracilis, semitendinosus, achilles tendon, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, tibialis posterior.

Gallstones: A small, hard crystalline mass formed abnormally in the gallbladder, often causing severe pain and blockage of the bile duct.

Gynaecology: The medical practice of dealing with the health of the female reproductive system (uterus, vagina and ovaries).

Hemiarthroplasty: A surgical procedure for repair of an injured or diseased hip joint involving replacing the head of the femur with prosthesis without reconstruction of the acetabulum.

Hip Revision: Involves removal of previously implanted artificial hip joint and replacement with new prosthesis. Can involve use of bone grafts.

Holmium YAG (Ho:YAG): A type of laser used for tissue ablation, kidney stone removal and in dentistry.

Hyaline Cartilage:  Found at the articular surface of joints; somewhat elastic, characterised by type II collagen.

Hyaluronic Acid: A viscous fluid carbohydrate present in connective tissue, synovial fluid and the humors of the eye.

Irradiated Grafts:  Tissue exposed to ionized gamma irradiation for the purpose of killing potential pathogens; requiring a dose between 1.5 and 5.0 megarad.

Irrigation: The use of saline or other bottled fluids to flush a body part with a stream of liquid before, during or after surgery.

Kidney: One of two paired organs which lie at the back of the abdomen, in front of the lower ribs and filter the blood to produce urine.

Kidney Stone: A solid piece of material that forms from crystallisation of excreted substances in the urine.

Knee Replacements: Surgery involving the replacement of the knee joint with artificial components to re-establish normal joint function.

Laparoscope: A telescope with a light source and camera attached which is inserted into the abdominal cavity (through a small incision) to perform 'keyhole' surgery.

Laser: Light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation; an energy source for performing some types of urological surgery.

Laser Ablation: The process of removing material from a solid (or occasionally liquid) surface by irradiating it with a laser beam.

Lateral: The side of the body or a body part that is furthest from the middle or centre of the body.

Lesion: A region in an organ or tissue that has suffered damage.

Ligament: Connects bone to bone. A cord or band of dense, tough, viscoelastic, white, fibrous tissue that bind together the articular ends of bone and cartilage. Important in preventing dislocation. The anterior cruciate ligament is an example.

Litholapaxy: Crushing of a stone, usually in the bladder, to reduce it to fragments small enough to be passed in the urine or removed through an endoscope.

Lithotripsy: A medical procedure involving the physical destruction of hardened masses like kidney stones, or gallstones.

Medial: The side of the body or a body part that is closest to the middle or centre of the body.

Meniscus: Or Menisci (plural). A crescent shaped fibrous cartilage wedge that lies within the patella.

Meniscus Transplant: Removing the worn or damaged meniscal cartilage and replacing with meniscal allograft.

Muscles (lower leg): Achilles tendon; tibialis anterior; peroneus longus; tibialis posterior.

Muscles (upper leg): Gracilis; semitendinosus (semitendinosus is one of 3 tendons that make up the hamstring muscle; the other two are the biceps femoris and the semimembranosus).

Nephrectomy: The surgical procedure of removing a kidney.

Orthopaedics: The branch of medical science dealing with the muskulo-skeletal system. 

Orthopaedic Implants: Medical device surgically placed into the body designed to restore function by replacing or reinforcing a damaged structure.

Orthopaedic Instruments: A group of instruments used in the performance of orthopaedic surgical operations.

Orthopaedic Surgeon: A surgeon trained in the diagnosis and treatment of spinal disorders, arthritis, sports injuries, trauma and fractures.

Osteo: A prefix used to denote a words' involvement to bone or bones.

Osteoarthritis: A type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints.

Osteochondral Defect: An area inside a joint where a portion of the joint cartilage and underlying bone has been lost.

Osteoconductive: Ability to conduct bone formation by serving as a 3D scaffold or matrix to support new bone growth; bridges the gap due to bone void, provides a surface for cells to attach.

Osteoinductive: Ability to induce bone formation even in non-bony environments. Examples include biologic stimulants, i.e. BMP's which, signal to the osteoblasts to begin the bone formation process.

Osteotome: An instrument used for cutting or preparing bone.

Revision Joint Surgery: The replacement of artificial joints and damaged bone with special plastic and metal parts.

SAL 10-6The probability of not more than one viable microorganism in an amount of one million sterilised items of the final product. A SAL of 10-6 is currently required by the FDA for invasive medical device and for sterilisation procedures. 

Soft Tissue Grafts: Any ligament replacement graft that does not have a bone block e.g. hamstring, tibialis, achilles.

Sterile: Free from all living organisms including bacteria or other microorganisms and their spores.

Sterility Assurance Level (SAL): Predicts the probability of survival of microorganisms after it has been subjected to a sterilisation process.  

Synovial fluid: A lubricating fluid which reduces friction between the articular cartilage of the synovial joints during movement. 

Tendon: Connects muscle to bone. Extension of a muscle into a firm, fibrous cord that attaches into bone. Examples include; Achilles, hamstring, and patellar tendons.

Total Hip Replacement: Surgery in which the diseased ball and socket of the hip joint are completely removed and replaced with artificial materials.

Total Knee Replacement: A surgical procedure in which damaged parts of the knee joint are replaced with artificial parts.

Ureteroscope: An optical device which is inserted into the urethra and passed up through the bladder to the ureter; to inspect the opening of the ureters.

Ureteroscopy: Inspection of the ureter (and/or kidney) using a telescope (either flexible or rigid) with an attached light source passed into the bladder and up the ureter towards the kidney.

Ureters: Two narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

Urethra: The tube through which urine passes to the outside of the body from the bladder.

Urologist: A medical doctor who specialises in treating conditions related to the kidneys and urinary tract and the reproductive system in males.

Urology: The branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract in both genders and with the reproductive system in the male.

Viscosupplements: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid preparations commonly used to treat osteoarthritis; thought to increase joint lubrication.

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